In addition to the basic intellectual property standards created by the TRIPS Agreement, many countries have engaged in bilateral agreements aimed at introducing a higher standard of protection. This set of standards, known as TRIPS+ or TRIPS-Plus, can take many forms. [20] The general objectives of these agreements are as follows: A 2003 agreement relaxed the requirements of the domestic market and allowed developing countries to export to other countries where there is a national health problem, as long as the exported drugs are not part of a commercial or industrial policy. [10] Medicines exported under such a regime may be repackaged or coloured to prevent them from affecting the markets of developed countries. Unlike other intellectual property agreements, the TRIPS Agreement has a powerful enforcement mechanism. States can be sanctioned by the WTO dispute settlement mechanism. 17 Main feature of the agreementStandards: The agreement expresses minimum standards of protection (I) The object to be protected (II) The rights to be transferred and the permitted exceptions (III) The minimum term of protection Enforcement (I) Provisions on local procedures and remedies for the enforcement of intellectual property rights (II) Includes a general principle applicable to procedures for the enforcement of intellectual property rights, with the exception of administrative procedures Civil and criminal proceedings to enforce the rights of the rightholder Dispute settlement: The agreement also provides for the settlement of disputes relating to intellectual property rights between Member States in the context of the dispute settlement procedure 3 Introduction Brief history of intellectual property rights (IPR)Intellectual property rights are the rights granted to persons over the creation of their minds. They generally confer on the author an exclusive right to use his creation for a certain period of time link between intellectual property (IP) and trade: overall by the following two premises: (I) Widespread piracy, imitation and infringement of intellectual property rights constituted a barrier to trade (II) transfer agreements on TRIPS intellectual property rights-plus conditions, which prescribe standards beyond the TRIPS Agreement were also discussed. [38] These free trade agreements contain conditions that limit the ability of governments to introduce competition for generic manufacturers […].

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